Unbenanntes Dokument Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR home
Arno's EnergyIdeas
Hyrdogen Ambassador: Hydrogen Society WORKerence http://www.aaevers.com/
Nav
NEW: Arno's and Juan's Interview
@ Hannover Messe 2014
NEU: Arnos und Juans Interview
@ Hannover Messe 2014
Interview with Arno: This book is the crowning of my life's work
Interview mit Arno: Dieses Buch ist der krönende Abschluss meines Lebenswerks
About "Our" Energy- Infrastructure on the way to Energiewende
Arnos Vortrag:
Sind wir noch zu retten?
kulturstudio: Klartext No 50 - Arno A. Evers - Energiewende auf der Erde
Arno's EnergieGedanken
jetzt auch auf YouTube!
Fernseh-Sendung zum Thema Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen
Open Letter to Angela Merkel, Federal Chancellor of Germany, the founder and to all members of the German Ethics Commission "Secure Energy Supply"
Offener Brief an Angela Merkel, Bundeskanzlerin, die Gründerin und alle Mitglieder der Ethikkommisson "Sichere Energieversorgung"
Carta abierta al Angela Merkel, Canciller Federal de Alemania, fundador y miembros del Comité de Ética Alemán convocado por la Canciller de Alemania para “Asegurar el abastecimiento de energía”
Invitation to WORKerence
Visits at MagneGas™
Arno was invited speaker at WREC World Renewable Energy Congress XI
in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates,
September 25-30, 2010
Arno's Activities on LinkedIn
Arno's Blog
Arno received the Hydrogen Award
for his Lifetime Contribution to Hydrogen Energy...
It`s all about Energy:
Energy Images
Objective and unbiased
Information Graphics
1. Energy Balances
1.1 World Energy Balance
1.2 Energy Balance in Germany
2. Production of hydrogen
2.1 Hydrogen from direct solar
2.2 Hydrogen from renewable energies
2.3 MagneGas™ from renewable energies
2.4 Hydrogen from fossil fuels
2.5 Hydrogen from nuclear energy
3. Production of electricity
3.1 Electricity from hydrogen
3.2 Electricity from renewable energies
3.3 Electricity from fossil fuels
3.4 Electricity from nuclear energy
4. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells on their way to commercialisation
4.1 A proposal to future energy supplies
Your Personal Power Provider (3P+)
4.2 Virtual Power Plant
5. Four steps to a new Energy Supply
5.1 Revolution in the garage
5.2 The cars are the keys
6. Energizing the world
6.1 Energy Efficiency
6.2 Global Energy Consumption
6.3 Digital Technologies and Consumer Electronics
6.4 Exampl. from Aircraft/Mining Industries
7 The 15 biggest global players
About Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR
Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR Team
Our Philosophy
Our Projects 1990-2012
Contact
HANNOVER FAIR 1995 - 2012
HANNOVER FAIR 2012
HANNOVER FAIR 2011
HANNOVER FAIR 2010
Arno's Forum Interview 2010
HANNOVER FAIR 2009
Arno's Video during HF 2009
Arno's Forum Interview 2009
HANNOVER FAIR 2008
Arno's Forum Interview 2008
HANNOVER FAIR 2007
Arno's Forum Interview 2007
HANNOVER FAIR 2006
Daily Networking evenings
HANNOVER FAIR 2005
Daily Networking evenings
International Commercial Visitors 2005
HANNOVER FAIR 2004
International Commercial Visitors 2004
HANNOVER FAIR 2003
International Commercial Visitors 2003
HANNOVER FAIR 2002
HANNOVER FAIR 2001
HANNOVER FAIR 2000
HANNOVER FAIR 1999
HANNOVER FAIR 1998
HANNOVER FAIR 1997
HANNOVER FAIR 1996
HANNOVER FAIR 1995
VIP Guest 1995 - 2006
Our 84 videos 2002 - 2009
Development 1995 - 2010
Conferences and website Documentation -Summary-  
2006 - 2009
Konferenzen und Webseiten Dokumentation -Zusammenfassung-       
 
2006 - 2009
Background Information
Articles by Arno A. Evers
H2/FC Links
Visits and Workshops
Hydrogen Plant of Emirates Industrial Gases Co. Ltd ( EIGC) at Dubai, UAE
Huerta Solar en Tabernas, Spain, October 2009
Andasol, Spain, October 2009
Antares DLR H2, Stuttgart, Germany, September 2009
German Aerospace Center (DLR) Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt eV, Stuttgart, Germany, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics (ITT) Institute of Vehicle Concepts Stuttgart, Germany, June 2009
Brennstoffzellen-Boote für den Freizeitbereich, Hochschule Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany June 2009
AFCC Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation, Burnaby, BC, Canada June 2009
Powertech Labs Inc., a: "... wholly owned subsidiary of BC Hydro (a Crown corporation of the Government of British Columbia), Surrey, BC, Canada June 2009
Plataforma Solar de Almería, Spain
Observations
How Airbus conquered the
US market in the 70s
The Arecibo Observatory
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
Hat Creek Radio Observatory,
Hat Creek, CA, USA
National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV, USA
Wright Brothers National Memorial, Kitty Hawk, NC, USA
Fuel Cell Bus Trial, Perth, Australia
California Hydrogen Highway, USA
SPACEFEST 2009, San Diego, USA
Impressions from worldwide Conferences, which we attended to promote the commercialisation of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells:
2010
#107 WREC World Renewable Energy Congress XI
September 25-30, 2010

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Oct 2010
#106 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference WHEC 2010,
May 16 - 21

Essen, Germany

Jun 2010
2009
#105 "Bright Horizons 6" - A Journey
to the Edge of the Cosmos

Eastern Caribbean

Dec 2009
#104 2009 Fuel Cell Seminar & Exposition
Palm Springs, CA, USA

Nov 2009
#103 Fuel Cell Technologies:
FUCETECH 2009
Mumbai (Bombay), India
Nov 2009
#102 f-cell
Stuttgart, Germany
Sep 2009
#101 SolarPACES 2009
Berlin, Germany
Sep 2009
#100 5th Annual Hydrogen Implementation Conference
Charleston, WV, USA

Aug 2009
#99 Intersolar North America
San Francisco, CA, USA

Jul 2009
#98 European FUEL CELL FORUM 2009
Lucerne, Switzerland

Jun 2009
#97 HFC2009
Vancouver, Canada

Jun 2009
#96 telescon 2009
Vienna, Austria

May 2009
#95 Hydrogen Works
San Diego, CA, USA

Feb 2009
#94 ICEPAG 2009
Newport Beach, CA, USA

Feb 2009
2008
#93 HTE-HI.TECH.EXPO 2008
Milan, Italy

Nov 2008
#92 Fuel Cell Seminar & Exposition
Phoenix, AZ, USA

Oct 2008
#91 H2Expo
Hamburg, Germany

Oct 2008
#90 f-cell
Stuttgart, Germany

Sep 2008
#89 INTELEC 2008
San Diego, CA, USA

Sep 2008
#88 2008 Formula Zero Championship
Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Aug 2008
#87 HyForum 2008
Changsha, P.R. China

Aug 2008
#86 WREC X 2008
Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Jul 2008
#85 KMCM 2008
Vancouver, BC, Canada

Jul 2008
#84 Lucerne FUEL CELL FORUM 2008 Switzerland
Lucerne, Switzerland
Jun 2008
#83 17th World Hydrogen
Energy Conference (WHEC) Australia
Brisbane, Australia
Jun 2008

The role of the young generation ...
#82 Renewable Energy Asia
Bangkok, Thailand Thailand
Jun 2008
#81 Selected Hydrogen Fueling Stations in California, USA USA
Apr 2008
#80 NHA Annual Hydrogen Conference 2008USA
Sacramento, CA, USA
Mar / Apr 2008
#79 FC EXPO 2008 Japan
Tokyo, Japan
Feb 2008
#78 Der 4. Deutsche Wasserstoff Germany
Congress 2008
Essen, Germany
Feb 2008
#77 ISEPD 2008 Korea
Changwon, Korea
Jan 2008
2007
#76 20TH World Energy Congress & Exhibition Italia
Rome, Italy
Nov 2007
#75 World Hydrogen Technologies Convention (WHTC) Italia
Montecatini Terme, Italy
Nov 2007
#74 2007 Fuel Cell Seminar & ExpositionUSA
San Antonio, Texas, USA
Oct 2007
#73 KOREA ENERGY SHOW 2007 Korea
Seoul, Republic of Korea
Oct 2007
#72 Tenth Grove Fuel Cell Symposium GB
London, UK
Sep 2007
#71 Solar Tech India 2007 India
New Delhi, India
Sep 2007
#70 SES-Fachtagung
MYTHOS STROMLÜCKE Switzerland
Zurich, Switzerland
Aug 2007
#69 HFCE 2007 China
Shanghai, P.R. China
Jul 2007
#68 IHEC 2007 Turkey
Istanbul, Turkey
Jul 2007
#67 KMCM 2007 Germany
Düsseldorf, Germany
Jul 2007
#66 Kick Off Meeting zur Leitinnovation Mikrobrennstoffzelle Germany
Munich, Germany
Jun 2007
#65 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2007: International Conference &
Trade Show
Vancouver, BC, Canada

April / May 2007
#64 GENERA - Energy and Environment International Fair
Madrid, Spain
Feb / Mar 2007
#63 World Renewable Energy Congress [WREN]
Fremantle, Australia
Feb 2007
#62 Environment 2007
Exhibition & Conference UAE
Abu Dhabi, UAE
Jan 2007
2006
#61 2nd Annual Fuel Cells Durability & Performance 2006 USA
Miami Beach, FL USA
Dec 2006
#60 EDTA Conference & Exposition USA
Washington, DC, USA
Nov 2006
#59 The Fuel Cell Seminar USA
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Nov 2006
#58 Fraunhofer Symposium
Mikroenergietechnik
POWER TO GOGermany
Berlin, Germany
Oct 2006
#57 Renewables to Hydrogen Forum USA
Albuquerque, NM, USA
Oct 2006
#56 Alternative Transport Energies Conference Australia
Perth, Western Australia
Sep 2006
#55 Power-Gen Asia China
Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Sep 2006
#54 World Renewable Energy
Congress IX and Exhibition Italy
Florence, Italy
Aug 2006
#53 R&D in the field of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell in Germany and Europe Germany
Clausthal, Germany
Jul 2006
#52 Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 Switzerland
Lucerne, Switzerland
Jul 2006
#51 16th World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC) France
Lyon, France
Jun 2006
#50 NHA Annual Hydrogen Conference
Long Beach, CA, USA
Mar 2006
#49 FC EXPO 2006
Tokyo, Japan
Jan 2006
#48 Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen im Automobil
Essen, Germany
Germany
Apr 2006
2005
#47 Fuel Cell Seminar
Palm Springs, USA

Nov 2005
#46 Internationale ASUE-Fachtagung
Essen, Germany

Nov 2005
#45 EHEC 2005
Zaragoza, Spain

Nov 2005
#44 Fuel Cell Summit:
A Road Map to Commercialization
Uncasville, CT, USA

Oct 2005
#43 2005 Grove Fuel Cell Symposium
London, UK

Oct. 2005
#42 WHTC 2005 World Hydrogen Technologies Convention (WHTC) Singapore, Singapore
Oct. 2005
#41 f-cell 2005, Stuttgart, Germany
Sep. 2005
#40 The 27th International Telecommunications Energy Conference - intelec '05
Berlin, Germany

Sep. 2005
#39 IHK Nord Wasserstoff – Tagung
Lübeck, Germany

Sep. 2005
#38 ICHS - International Conference on Hydrogen Safety , Pisa, Italy
Sep. 2005
#37 IHEC-2005
International Hydrogen
Energy Congress & Exhibition

Jul. 2005
#36 93. Bunsen Kolloquium
Jun. 2005
#35 European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP)
Brussels, Belgium

Mar. 2005
#34 Cairo 9th International Conference on Energy & Environment
Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

Mar. 2005
#33 1st International Fuel Cell Expo
Tokyo, Japan

Jan. 2005
 
2004
#32 H2PS: The 2004 Hydrogen Production and Storage Forum,
Washington, DC, USA

Dec. 2004
 
#31 Impressions from Shanghai
Nov. 2004
 
#30 Renewable Energies China incl. Hydrogen + Fuel Cells
Shanghai, PR China

Nov. 2004
#29 Michelin Challenge Bibendum 2004
Oct. 2004
#28 Energy Asia 2004
Oct. 2004
#27 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2004
Conference and Trade Show
Toronto, ON, Canada

Sep. 2004
#26 Meetings in Singapore,
Sep. 2004
#25 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Futures Conference, Perth, Australia
Sep. 2004
#24 Exhibiting at World Renewable Energy Congress VIII
Denver, CO, USA

Sep. 2004
#23 Arno presenting at ACS National Meeting Philadelphia, PA, USA
Aug. 2004
#22 Promotion of FP6, for European Union, Delegation of the European Commission, Shanghai
Jul. 2004
#21 IHK Energy-Podium 2004
Jul. 2004
#20 15th World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC15)
Yokohama, Japan

Jun. 2004
#19 Impressions from the
Energy Forum 2004
Varna, Bulgaria

Jun. 2004
#18 Impressions from HYFORUM
May 2004
#17 Impressions from Dubai
United Arab Emirates

May 2004
#16 Impressions from Argentina
May 2004
#15 Promoting Hydrogen Production from Patagonia, Argentina
May 2004
#14 Impressions Zhuozheng Garden
in Su Zhou

Mar. 2004
2003
#13 H2PS: The 2003 Hydrogen Production and Storage Forum
Washington, D.C., USA

Dec. 2003
#12 Impressions from
Washington, D.C., USA

Dec. 2003
#11 Shanghai International Industry Fair (SIF), Shanghai, P.R. China
Nov. 2003
#10 Energy Asia 2003
PTC Asia 2003
CeMAT Asia 2003
Factory Automation Asia 2003
Shanghai, P.R. China

Nov. 2003
#9 2003 WATER KOREA
Nov. 2003
#8 NESC 2003 - 6th Int'l Conference on New Energy Systems & Conversions
Nov. 2003
#7 Impressions from Busan
South-Korea

Nov. 2003
#6 2003 Fuel Cell Seminar
Miami Beach, Florida, USA

Nov. 2003
#5 Impressions from Shanghai, Beijing, P.R. China
Nov 2003 - Jul. 2004
#4 f-cell forum, Stuttgart, Germany
Sep. 2003
#3 Hypothesis V, Porto Conte, Italy
Sep. 2003
#2 1st European Hydrogen Energy Conference, Grenoble, France
Sep. 2003
#1 Cooperation for Energy Independence of Democracies in the 21st Century
Jerusalem, Israel

Aug. 2003
Shanghai International
Industry Fair (SIF) 2004

International Meeting Point with Conference, Renewable Energies China, incl. Hydrogen + Fuel Cells, Shanghai, China  
In memoriam: Ludwig Boelkow
Corporate Information
home

It`s all about Energy:
Energy Images
Objective and unbiased Information Graphics

Deutsch Eine Auswahl deutscher "Energy Images" mit deutschen Erläuterungen finden sie hier:
http://www.hydrogenambassadors.com/background/facts-deutsch.php
   
1. Energy Balances
1.1 World Energy Balance
1.2 Energy Balance in Germany
   
2. Production of hydrogen
2.1 Hydrogen from direct solar
2.2 Hydrogen from renewable energies
2.3 MagneGas™ from renewable energies
2.4 Hydrogen from fossil fuels
2.5 Hydrogen from nuclear energy
 
3. Production of electricity
3.1 Electricity from hydrogen
3.2 Electricity from renewable energies
3.3 Electricity from fossil fuels
3.4 Electricity from nuclear energy
   
4. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells on their way to commercialisation
4.1. A proposal to future energy supplies Your Personal Power Provider (3P+)
4.2. Virtual Power Plant
   
5. Four steps to a new Energy Supply
5.1 Revolution in the garage
5.2 The cars are the keys
   
6. Energizing the world
6.1 Energy Efficiency
6.2 Global Energy Consumption
6.3 Digital Technologies and Consumer Electronics
6.4 Exampl. from Aircraft/Mining Industries
7 The 15 biggest global players

These Energy Images about the commercialisation of hydrogen and fuel cells and related topics have been created after careful research by:

Arno A. Evers and his FAIR-PR team:
Online Research: > Daniela Peschka, Starnberg
IT: > Ulrich Felger
Graphic Design: > Thomas Schirmaier, Munich, Germany
Coauthor: > Ulrich Walter, Marburg

This background information is based on personal experience and first hand information on site all over the world, while attending 10 to 15 international hydrogen and fuel cells conferences per year since 2003

Everyone is most welcome to use, forward and/or and reprint these Energy Images for personal information, educational purposes and/or commercial studies.

We would appreciate any link from your page to ours:
http://www.hydrogenambassadors.com/background/facts.php

Please find the individual sources listed at the bottom of each page/image. The figures were valid at the time of our research, however, we are not liable for any missing facts which may no longer be accurate due to the fast change of figures over the time.

Please enjoy using this information!

1. Energy Balances
 
1.1 World Energy Balance
   
Earth's Energy Balance
The earth energy balance represents the balance between incoming energy from the Sun Sand thermal (longwave) and reflected (shortwave) energy from the Earth. The energy released from the Sun in one hour would be adequate to cover the energy needs of the entire world population for one year.
   
Global Energy Flows in watts / m2 / sec
Estimate of the Earth’s annual and global mean energy balance. Over the long term, the amount of incoming solar radiation absorbed by the Earth and atmosphere is balanced by the Earth and atmosphere releasing the same amount of outgoing longwave radiation. About half of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth’s surface.
   
World Energy Balance 2007
Current energy systems are based on coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear fission, depending on the circumstances in a given country and its access to today’s “cheapest”, not necessarily on the most viable, primary energy resources. 88 percent (!) of our energy supply in 2007 was from fossil or nuclear origin.
   
World Energy Balance, Comparison 1973 to 2007
The total final consumption (TFC) worldwide grew from 4,675 Mtoe in 1973 to 8,286 Mtoe in 2007 with 88 percent derived from the combustion of fossil fuels and nuclear power. This is equivalent to an average power consumption rate of 96,349 terawatt-hours (TWh) in 2007.
   
World Energy Balance 2005
This graphic presents the World Energy Balance of the year 2005 according to a report edited by the International Energy Agency in its publication "Key World Energy Statistics 2007"...
 
1.2 Energy Balance in Germany
   
Energy Balance Germany 2011
   
Energy Balance Germany 2008
This statistic shows the high amount of flaring and transmission losses, which are approx. 22 percent of the primary energy being produced in Germany in 2008. Should all the energy be used for the German industry alone be eliminated to ZERO, this still would save less than the flaring and transmission losses (90.3 compared to 121.8 t.c.e - Tonnes Coal Equivalents).
   
Energy Balance Germany 2007
For decades Germany’s autonomy has been put at risk through its dependence on other countries for its primary energy supply. In 2007, 84 percent of Germany’s primary energy was imported. Germany is, like many other countries, importing coal, crude oil, natural gas and uranium for nuclear energy. Coal / peat is by far the most used primary energy for the production of electricity in power plants.
   
Energy Balance Germany 1979 - 2007
The graphs show the energy flow in Germany from the year 1979, created and published by Dipl.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Ludwig Bölkow in his book, "Decisions for a long-term energy policy" (published 1982).
   
Renewable energy sources as a share of energy supply in Germany 2011
   
Renewable energy sources as a share of energy supply in Germany 2008
The expansion of renewable energy sources in Germany continues undamped. Their share of the total final energy consumption has more than doubled since 2000, and now stands at 9.5 percent of the total final energy consumption or to be more precise: at 15.1 percent of the total electricity consumption, 7.7 percent of the heat and 5.9 percent of the fuel consumption.
   
Renewable Energies in Germany 2007
According to estimates by the Association of Energy Balances e.V., the primary energy consumption in Germany in 2007 accounted for 13,878 petajoules (PJ) and decreased by 4.8 percent compared to the previous year...
   
Balance of electricity supply Germany 2007 Balance of electricity supply Germany 2007
This energy image shows the energy consumption in Germany in the year 2007 as stated by the Association of Energy Balances e.V. The gross power generation of power plants was with approx 636.5 billion kWh similar to the one of 2006. The share of nuclear power with 140.5 billion kWh in the gross electricity production fell by 22.1% and dropped behind the shares of coals. Electricity generation from wind energy increased significantly by almost 29 % to 39.5 billion kWh...
   
Energy Balance Germany 2006 Energy Balance Germany 2006
This statistic shows the high amount of flaring and transmission losses, which are more than a quarter of the primary energy being produced in Germany alone and bought from other nations, being used inside Germany in 2006...
   
Energy Balance Germany 2005 compared to 2006 Energy Balance Germany 2005 compared to 2006
In 2006 the primary energy consumption increased by 2.5 percent to 497.8 million t.c.e. This can be seen in the Energy Balance 2006 for Germany from the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen e.V. ...
   
Energy Balance Germany 2005
This statistic shows the high amount of flaring and transmission losses, which are more than a quarter of the primary energy being produced in Germany alone and bought from other nations, being used inside Germany in 2005...
   
Energy Balance Germany 2003 in million t.c.e. incl Comparison to 2007
The graphic explains the energy flow in Germany in the year 2003, first published by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen e.V. in 2004 ...
   

2. Production of hydrogen
 

2.1 Hydrogen from direct solar
   
Virtual power plants with direct solar hydrogen and Fuel Cells Virtual power plants with direct solar hydrogen and Fuel Cells
One possibility to produce hydrogen directly - without the use of electricity - is the direct use of solar energy, based on electrochemical photolysis...
   
Direct Solar Hydrogen Production
at the “Plataforma Solar de Almeria“ (PSA)

In several research and development projects, over the years, various concepts from the laboratory processes to pilot-scale preparation have been created...
   

2.2 Hydrogen from renewable energies
 
Production of Hydrogen without electricity from renewables
Although a renewable energy source in conjunction with electrolysis would eliminate the dependence on fossil fuels, it still requires the production of electricity in the first place. The overall efficiencies of these processes are thereby reduced. Alternative methods without the need for electrical power include...
   
Production of Hydrogen with electriciy from renewables
Electrolysis, which uses direct current electricity to separate hydrogen from water, could be a possible technology used to produce hydrogen entirely renewable and without pollution, but it requires the input of large amounts of electrical energy. To support this production of hydrogen from “green” electricity, still a grid of substantial length and power is needed...
   
Hydrogen produced by wave power
Wave power is a form of renewable energy which refers to the energy of ocean surface waves. The power is determined by the water density, wave speed, length and height...
   
Production of Electricity with hydrogen from renewable energies
Today’s path to produce hydrogen, its distribution, storage and utilization is following the line of more or less conventional and known technologies...
   
Direct Hydrogen Production from Renewables – with Nanotechnology – without electricity
At the moment, all technologies are using electrolysers or reformers in order to produce the hydrogen to be used in the fuel cells for production of electricity...
   
direct production of hydrogen without electricty H2/FC Generation and Applications Process
In the future, direct production of Hydrogen - without electricity - by using renewable energies might be the only alternative to avoid all kinds of mechanical, transfer and electrical losses in the electrolysis process.
   

2.3 The Power of MagneGas™
   
The Power of MagneGas™
Converting different Bio-Liquids to Renewable Power
Creating Convenience and Power Independence

In this new method, all forms of liquid biomass can be used to produce a hydrogen-based gas, wholly unique in its properties and efficiencies, but easier to handle than bio-liquids. As input, different sorts of liquid biomass can be used. Municipal sewage overflow or oil-based liquids are ideal candidates...
   
MagneGas™ Residential and Transportation Power Supply
A potential solution for our Residential and Transportation needs, creating Power independence and Convenienece ...
   

2.4 Hydrogen from fossil fuels
   
Residential fuel cells
Chemical process to produce hydrogen

The idea sounds convincing: replace your standard gas boiler with a micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system based on fuel cell technology and be your own producer of clean heat, hot water and electricity...
   
Actual Worldwide Hydrogen Production from …
The world hydrogen production is not monitored, but estimated at 45 million tons (500 million cubic metres) per year. Around 96 percent of it is derived from fossil fuels.
   
State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production
At the moment, all technologies are using either a reformer (reformation of natural gas, methanol and other hydrocarbons, gasification of coal, partial oxidation of heavy crude oil) or an electrolyser (electrolytic hydrogen from hydropower, hydrogen from nuclear energy)...
   

2.5 Hydrogen from nuclear energy
   
Production of Electricity and Hydrogen from Nuclear
Today there are more than 400 Nuclear Power Stations in daily use in 31 countries worldwide. They produce electricity rather conventional in steaming water with a very high C02 emission in the progress and unknown use of the nuclear waste after usage...
   

3. Production of electricity
   
The Process of Electricity Generation
The process of electricity generation was already discovered in the mid-1800s, but its generation today is basically still the same process: Water is boiled by burning fossil fuels to produce steam which drives a turbine....
   

3.1 Electricity from hydrogen
   
Production of Electricity with hydrogen from fossil fuels
Today’s path to produce hydrogen, its distribution, storage and utilization is following the line of more or less conventional and known technologies. Starting from fossil fuels, like coal, natural gas or oil, hydrogen is produced by means of reformers...
   

3.2 Electricity from renewable energies
   
The Role of Renewable Energy in the U.S., 2005
According to a new report by the Energy Information Administration, the U.S. total consumption of energy stood at 100.942 Quadrillion Btu in 2005.
   
Development of Renewable Energies for Production of Electricity in Germany 1986 - 2006
Fossil fuels represent the majority source for the production of electricity from primary energies in Germany, followed by nuclear energy...
   
Production of Electricity in Germany 2006
The share of electricity produced from renewable energies in total electricity production in Germany added up to 12 percent in 2006...
   
Scheme of a Mini Solar Thermal Power Plant (MSTPP) Scheme of a Solar Thermal Power Plant (STPP)
The Solar Thermal Power Plant (STPP) is a combination of a solar collector and a turbine. The solar collector produces steam from water (or other media) with a temperature level of about 290°C which is directly used in the turbine to generate electricity of max 27 kV. ...
   
Geothermal Power Station (binary cycle)
In a binary cycle the hot geothermal water is passed through an heat exchanger, where its heat is transferred into a second (binary) liquid that boils at a lower temperature than water...
   

3.3 Electricity from fossil fuels
   
Planned Power Plants for fossil fuels in Germany
Demand for electricity has steadily risen to almost 570 million t.c.e (tonnes coal equivalents) in 2006 and is expected to continue to grow over the next decades. ...
   
Production of Electricity from Primary Energies in 2002
In 2002, fossil fuels represent the majority source for the production of electricity from primary energies in the EU-25 countries...
   
Coal Kills Climate
In the next years German utilities are planning 26 new coal power plants with a total capacity of 25,500 MW and the known side effects like the release of carbon dioxide, mercury and other pollutants...
   

3.4 Electricity from nuclear energy
   
Electricity from Nuclear Energy
After the exploration process, uranium ore undergoes:
Uranium Mining: The uranium ore is recovered from the earth’s crust...
   
Nuclear Power Plants in Germany
Germany has 17 operating nuclear power plants with a total capacity of 21.299 MWe. In 2000, the German Government announced a compromise agreement on the eventual shut down of the nuclear power plants...
   

4. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells on their way to commercialisation
Hydrogen and the laws of physics
In an ideal system, 3.9 kWh of electricity and 1 liter of pure water are required to produce 0.111 kg of hydrogen. But typical commercial electrolyzer system efficiencies vary between 56 and 73 percent which corresponds to 70.1–53.4 kWh/kg or roughly 5.6 kWh for extracting 0.111 kg of hydrogen from 1 liter of water.
   
Hydrogen's hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, introduced his idea of a hierarchy of needs in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” which was published in 1943 and in his subsequent book “Motivation and Personality”. The hierarchy of needs suggests that people satisfy basic needs first before moving on to other needs...
   
Hydrogen is already on the market worldwide, but ....
The world hydrogen production is not monitored, but estimated at 45 million tons (500 million cubic metres) per year, generating sales worth USD 28 billion p.a. Around 96 percent of it is derived from fossil fuels. It is mainly produced by steam methane reformers (SME), partial oxidation of heavy fractions of hydrocarbons, large (hydro) electrolyzers, coal and biomass gasification...
   
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells on their way Hydrogen and Fuel Cells on their way to commercialisation
Today’s path to produce hydrogen, and their distribution, storage and utilization is following the line of more or less conventional and known technologies. Starting from primary energies like coal, fossil fuels, natural gas or wind energy, hydrogen is produced by means of electrolysers or reformers...
   
Annual number of large stationary fuel cells above 10kWe and MW installed
Large stationary fuel cells can be defined as units above 10kWe operating in grid tied or off grid operations, as CHP, CCP or in use as electricity generators...
   
Annual new portable fuel cell units 2005 – 2009
Annual new small stationary H2/FC units for CHP and UPS (under 10kW)

Since year it has been stated that fuel cells have the potential to become the dominant technology for portable electronics. But reality is less exciting: “2008 saw around 9,000 units shipped in the portable fuel cell sector, a slight increase on 2007 but a lower rate of increase compared with 2006...
   
Annual new fuel cell buses produced from 1994 through 2008
The production of new fuel cell buses in the past five years is significantly lower than the units manufactured in 2003, when Daimler delivered its 33-bus fleet to the European CUTE and ECTOS and Australian STEP programmes.
   
Distribution of hydrogen fueling stations by region
Fuel Cell Today projects that there will be over 150 hydrogen fueling stations in operation worldwide by the end of 2009. Most of them are in North America, followed by Europe, Japan and Asia. Only a miniscule quantity of hydrogen fueling stations is shared between the rest of the world...
   
Consumption of Hydrogen by End Use – 2006
The graph published by SRI Consulting shows the consumption of hydrogen by region and end use in the year 2006. In North America, Central South America and Europe, most of the hydrogen is used at refineries to make reformulated gasoline. ...
   
How can we create the sustainable hydrogen society?
In order to create a sustainable hydrogen society, hydrogen has to become a common commodity, must be produced free of pollution and losses, has to be traded global, based on supply and demand and must be used for electrification, transportation and convenience. ...
   
Worldwide breakthrough for Hydrogen + Fuel Cells
While the invention of the fuel cell dates back to 1838-39, its concrete application first appeared in the 1960's in the US and Russian space programs. Following the first oil crisis in the 1970's, research activities in stationary, mobile and portable applications reached their peak around the year 2000...
   
Quotes regarding the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cells
(1998-2002)

"The introduction of fuel cells in mobile and stationary applications could possibly revolutionize the world's energy picture." ...
   
4.1. A proposal to future energy supplies Your Personal Power Provider (3P+)
   
Your Personal Power Provider (3P+)
Today’s production of hydrogen, its distribution, storage and utilization are dependent upon conventional technologies, which are not commercial feasible at this time. All known technologies produce “black hydrogen” based on fossil fuels, rather than “green hydrogen” via direct solar energy ...
   
Use of a Personal Power Provider (3P+)
In order to create a sustainable hydrogen society, hydrogen has to become a common commodity: It must be produced directly in one conversation step from all “real renewable” primary energy sources...
   
Global applications of Personal Power Providers (3P+)
Scientists, designers, engineers, craftsmen and people in education, administration, media and governmental positions, including politicians, - but also the final consumers - must be able to identify and overcome the obstacles in the bad efficiency of our existing electricity system...
   
4.2. Virtual Power Plant
   
Virtual Power Plant Virtual Power Plant
A virtual fuel cell power plant consist of a group of interconnected decentralized residential micro-CHPs (Combined Heat and Power Systems) which are installed in multi-family-houses, small enterprises, public facilities etc., for individual heating, cooling and electricity production. ...
   
   

5. Four steps to a new Energy Supply
   
Four steps to a new reliable, cleaner and decentralized Energy Supply based on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Cars could be (or more pronounced: Cars have to be…) the key and the lead for a new energy supply based on H2/FC. All components to implement this idea are ready and available. All it takes is four steps...
   

5.1 Revolution in the garage
   
Revolution in the Garage
Looking at today’s so-called “western” countries, if all worldwide registered cars (more than 800 Mio in 2007) would be equipped with a fuel cell system, they could (all together) easily take over the function of all today’s existing stationary power plants...
   

5.2 The cars are the keys
   
Hydrogen cars to conquer the market?
Hydrogen and fuel-cell cars are being tremendously promoted for a long time now. All the major automakers are working on them (Daimler f-cell, Honda FCX Clarity, GM Chevy Equinox, just to name a few) but none expect take-off until 2020 with production numbers in the low thousands at first...
   
Share of the total U.S. Auto Sales Market 1998 – 2008
As shown by the data of the The Wall Street Journal, Toyota is on its way to overtake GM in its home market and to become the No. 1 car seller in the US...
   
World Passenger Car Production by Country 2006 – 2007 in Millions
According to the International Organisation of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA), the global passenger car production in 2007 rose to almost 53 million units from 49.9 million the previous year, which corresponds to an increase of 6.3 percent...
 
A possible example: Swiss “Solartaxi” conquering the world These examples show how solar powered transportation could conquer the world:
The solartaxi was invented by Louis Palmer from Switzerland. It is an electric vehicle with a five-meter long trailer covered by 6 square meters of high-energy 850 W solar cells. These solar cells produce enough electricity to run the taxi for up to 100 km a day...
   
Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles (Examples)
This graphic summarizes facts of Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Advanced Technology Vehicles based on their availability in 2008 in the car show rooms in the US...
   
State of the World Car Market 2006
According to F1 Racing, USA's car sales occupy the commanding position in the world's car market 2006. Car sales stood by 16,6 million untis per year with an average price of roughly 28.300 US$ per car. ...
   
Can 35 cars power one skyscraper?
This building shows a skyscraper in Singapore. On the photo next to the building are 35 cars, standing idle, a very typical situation world wide...
   
Average power of new registered cars in Germany 1981-2006
The figures shown (from 58 kW in 1981 to 93 kW in 2006) are highlighting the increase in average engine-power of new registered cars in Germany over the years...
   
World passenger car production incl. P.R. China World passenger car production incl. P.R. China
The graphic of the global motor vehicle production from 1900 to 2008 shows that in the beginning, car production was shared between North America and Europe only. After 1950, other players appeared on the market like Japan and South Korea. China started their domestic car production in 1985.
   
Worldwide Car Production 2000 and 2007 in million units
An analysis by the Sueddeutsche Zeitung and the International Organisation of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) shows, that the biggest increase in the worldwide car production is in Asia, especially in China.
   
US Car Production 2001-2010
The major players currently operating in the US passenger car industry - such as General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Toyota, and Honda – are facing opportunities and challenges in this dynamic industry...
   
Price to fill up a Honda Civic
According to the Foreign Policy magazine, the price to filling up a Honda Civic varies hugely around the world – depending on subsidies and taxes...
   
Who is saving most CO2 emissions?
Each year every car puts several tons of CO2 in the air. Therefore cuts in transport emissions and new technologies to reduce emissions are needed...
   
Petrol Consumption per day Petrol Consumption per day
According to the Foreign Policy magazine, the USA consumes nearly 1.4 billion liters petrol per day and is therefore the country with the most consumption...
   

6. Energizing the world
   

6.1 Energy Efficiency
   
Losses @ Electricity Generation in Germany … far beyond Imagination!!!
   
Daily Energy Losses
When you consider a “normal” electrical coal power plant, the counting of the efficiency only starts from the moment when the coal is at the venue of the plant...
   
Daily Energy Losses by AC DC Adaptors
We all know them; they seem so inconspicuous. There a many of them in every household of the "Western" world. Mostly, except for the imprint "Made in China", they carry nothing more than little green or red LED lamps which shine when network-connection is available....
   
Energy effiency – one example
With every air-condition unit we install in a room or at a building, we not only cool our surroundings with a low efficiency but also heat our atmosphere with still unknown results.
   
The Grid - German High Voltage Network
   

6.2 Global Energy Consumption
   
Worldwide Energy Consumption by Region, 1970 – 2030
According to the American Energy Information Administration (EIA) and to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the worldwide energy consumption will continue to increase by approx. 50 quadrillion btu every year...
   
World Energy Use by Energy Type, 1970 - 2025
The consumption of worldwide energy use from all energy types is expected by the EIA (Energy Information Administration) - other sources come to similar figures...
   
Electricity Deprivation
Based on the World Energy Outlook 2009, the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that in 2008 the number of people without access to electricity was 1.5 billion or 22 percent of the world’s population...
   
Residential Sector Electricity Consumption per Capita by Country Group, 2002 and 2025
According to the International Energy Outlook 2005, released by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the worldwide consumption of electricity is expected to increase gradually...
   
Water Shortage
1.2 billion people all over the world still live without clean drinking water and 2.6 billion people without sanitary facilities.
   
Energy crisis, what energy crisis?
The first graphic shows the development of crude oil in $ US a barrel from 1970 to 2003. The price of crude oil in 2003 is at its highest since 18 years, but 50 $ US a barrel it still is a bargain as the demand rises steadily at a worldwide scale...
   
Crude Oil Prices 1947 – 2008
Crude oil prices behave much as any other article of trade with wide price changes in times of shortage or oversupply. From 1947 to 1973 the crude oil prices were quite stable, fluctuating between $US 14 and $US 18 a barrel...
   
Today‘s Energy Situation
On the one hand, more than 800 million cars are registered on the road today and more than 1.15 billion cellular phones have been sold in 2007 worldwide. Both rates are still increasing and are just examples for a world which always wants to get bigger, faster, higher and more communicative.
   

6.3 Digital Technologies and Consumer Electronics
Cellular boom in China
There is no doubt; the world’s largest mobile market is located in China. According to China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), in December 2008, there were 634 million Chinese mobile subscribers, served by only three carriers: China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom.
   
Nokia Mobile Phones volumes 1984 - 2009
From out of nowhere, the Nokia Corporation, based in Espoo, Finland, has become a pioneer in the telecommunication market. In 2009 alone it has sold more than 432 million mobile phones (on average 1.2 million mobile phones per day) and held an estimated 39 percent share of the global device market...
   
Evolution of the Apple iPod 2002 - 2009
The Apple iPod revolution that began in 2001 not only overturned the conventional way of listening to music, but affected people's entire life. On October 21, 2001 Apple Computer, Inc. from Cupertino, CA, USA, introduced its first 5 GB hard-drive based MP-3 player storing 1,000 songs with a battery life of 10 hours and a sales price tag of US$ 399...
   
Evolution of the Mobile Phone 1983-2005
As shown from the example (Dynetek mobile phone in 1983 vs. Sony Ericsson mobile phone in 2005) the progression of the telecommunications industry is immense...
   
Implementation time of new Products
The future of an H2/FC economy will not be dependent on the replacement of existing energy-powered products, but rather in new products and/or new services unknown today...
   
Home appliance ownership in every 100 Shanghai, P.R.China, families
The Chinese economy grew fast in recent years and so did the income and lifestyle of Chinese people. As showed by the Shanghai Statistics Bureau, Shanghai Daily, the average Shanghai family owns most of the modern home appliances introduced by the western world...
   
Solar Chargers Available Solar Chargers
An estimated number of 1.1 billion cellular phones will be sold in 2007, the annual production rate is still increasing...
   
Telecommunications, Media and Usage by region
In the beginning telephones, mobiles, PCs and the internet were exotic, heavy and expensive status symbols. But size and weight reduction, affordable, reliable, and universal inventions...
   
The customer can decide
FC Car and Experiment Kit – cost $149 USD. This kit can be used for various important experiments, like measuring current, efficiency, etc. They have regrettably, no payload, no range, or anything “useful” for daily life...
 
   

6.4 Exampl. from Aircraft/Mining Industries
   
35 Locomotives can not fly! /
Evolution in the Aircraft Industry 1903 - 2007

In 1903, 35 locomotives with a weight of 16 tonnes each could in fact not fly. However when you compare the Wright’s Flyer with today’s Airbus A380 over the past 104 years, big changes took place, both in services, daily usage, technology and infrastructure...
   

7 The 15 biggest global players
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #1 Year 2007
According to the Sueddeutsche Zeitung, in 2007 the 15 biggest global players – ranked by trade volume - are more or less the same companies from the same industries as in the year 2006...
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #2 Year 2007
From 2006 to 2007, the biggest winners in terms of trade volume are the Asian companies, while the trade volume of German and American companies degrade (with the German automobile company as an exception)...
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #3 Year 2007
Europe's second-biggest carmaker (after Volkswagen) and the world's sixth-largest carmaker in terms of vehicle production had the sharpest increase in profits compared to 2006, followed by Sony and two more European automobile makers...
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #4 Year 2007
According to the Sueddeutsche Zeitung, in 2007 the 15 biggest global players – ranked by trade volume - are more or less the same companies from the same industries as in the year 2006...
   
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #1 Year 2006
According to the Sueddeutsche Zeitung, the 15 biggest global players – ranked by trade volume - are not a mixed bunch of industries. There’s a weighting towards oil companies like Exxon Mobil...
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #2 Year 2006
The sector with the highest average number of employees is the commerce sector followed by the automobile industry...
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #3 Year 2006
Wal-Mart (commerce sector) shows a phenomenal level in both revenue and employees, making it the number one in the ranking by employees/ trade volume...
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #4 Year 2006
Average profits per employee were highest for the oil sector with up to 100.000 employees. These figures should be compared with the result and the hard work of millions of SME (small and medium sized enterprises)...
   
The 15 biggest global players The 15 biggest global players #5 Year 2006
The oil sector had the highest average profits per employee of all global players whilst the automobile sector is scored poorly.
October 24, 2006
http://www.energy.gov/news/4401.htm
U.S. Department of Energy Awards $100 Million in Fuel Cell R&D
LOCATION CHICAGO, IL –U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced $100 million to fund 25 hydrogen research and development projects that can help change the way we power our nation. These projects support President Bush’s Advanced Energy Initiative, which seeks to reduce our dependence on foreign sources of energy through the research, development and deployment of transformational new clean energy technologies. Secretary Bodman made today’s announcement while speaking to the Council on Competitiveness and the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce Foundation.
more ...
 
Hydrogen Cars and Filling Stations

Information Service provided by L-B-Systemtechnik, Germany
Strategy Consultants in Energy, Transport and Hydrogen Technologies.
     
 
Fuel Cell Specialty Vehicles  
 
 
 
 

Comprehensive Listing of FC Buses, FC Vehicles, H2 Fuelling Stations around the world … organized by Automaker … with many photos of cars, buses, filling stations…
Source: Fuel Cells 2000
For more H2/FC charts, click through to www.fuelcells.org

 
H2/FC Generation and Applications process